mount rushmore wiki


The Sculptor's Studio — a display of unique plaster models and tools related to the sculpting — was built in 1939 under the direction of Borglum. The components of Borglum's sealant included linseed oil, granite dust, and white lead, but a modern silicone replacement is now used, disguised with granite dust. Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial | pine beetle infestations have threatened the forest. Most events have been ground fires that serve to clear forest debris.[34].

[48], Mount Rushmore is largely composed of granite. The … Sie wollen das ihnen angestammte Land zurück, vor allem auch die ihnen heiligen Black Hills (Paha Sapa). [59] Subsequent erosion stripped the granite of the overlying sediments and the softer adjacent schist. Wegen der schlechten Qualität des Granits und zu wenig Platz für die Skulpturen wurde dieser Vorschlag abgelehnt. [23] The mountain's height of 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level[7] made it suitable, and because it faces the southeast, the workers also had the advantage of sunlight for most of the day. Der National Park Service verwaltet sie nicht selbst, sondern steht nur beratend zur Verfügung. Fort Caroline National Memorial | "[26], The Crazy Horse Memorial is being constructed elsewhere in the Black Hills to commemorate the famous Native American leader and as a response to Mount Rushmore. Das Monument wurde von ihm in 14 Sommern zwischen 1927 und 1941 in den Granit des Mount Rushmore gesprengt, gehauen und gemeißelt. [61], The Mount Rushmore area is underlain by well drained alfisol soils of very gravelly loam (Mocmount) to silt loam (Buska) texture, brown to dark grayish brown. [24], After long negotiations involving a Congressional delegation and President Calvin Coolidge, the project received Congressional approval on March 3, 1925. [citation needed], Because of its fame as a monument, Mount Rushmore is frequently discussed or depicted in media, film and popular culture. National Japanese American Memorial To Patriotism During World War II | Each president was originally to be depicted from head to waist, but lack of funding forced construction to end on October 31, 1941. [31][39] In 1991, President George H. W. Bush officially dedicated Mount Rushmore. 1937 folgte Abraham Lincoln und ab 1939 nahm man in der Felsnische das Bildnis Theodore Roosevelts in Angriff.

In 1998, electronic monitoring devices were installed to track movement in the topology of the sculpture to an accuracy of 3 mm. Borglum said upon seeing Mount Rushmore, "America will march along that skyline. He chose Mount Rushmore, a grander location, partly because it faced southeast and enjoyed maximum exposure to the sun. [12] Construction began in 1927, and the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. The Treaty of Fort Laramie from 1868 had previously granted the Black Hills to the Lakota in perpetuity.

However, this memorial is likewise the subject of controversy, even within the Native American community. Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial | Ces quatre visages de 18 mètres de haut se situent dans l'État du Dakota du Sud dans les collines Black Hills .

Anaya’s recommendations include advising the U.S. to return some land to Native American tribes, including South Dakota’s Black Hills. Dikes, seeps, and springs help to dam up water that is flowing downhill, providing watering spots for animals. August 1998 doch noch fertiggestellt. Wright Brothers National MemorialDie mit * gekennzeichneten National Memorials sind affiliated areas. Insufficient funding forced the carving to end in October 1941. In addition, several species of frogs and snakes inhabit the region. At first, the project of carving Rushmore was undertaken to increase tourism in the Black Hills region of South Dakota. Jedes Porträt ist 18 Meter hoch. Originally known to the Lakota Sioux as "The Six Grandfathers" (Tȟuŋkášila Šákpe) or "Cougar Mountain" (Igmútȟaŋka Pahá);[19][20] American settlers knew it variously as Cougar Mountain, Sugarloaf Mountain, Slaughterhouse Mountain, and Keystone Cliffs. modifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (25 mars 1867 – 6 mars 1941) est un artiste et sculpteur américain qui devint mondialement célèbre pour son œuvre du mont Rushmore qui représente quatre grands présidents américains. The United States broke up the territory after gold was discovered in the Black Hills. ", "Last carver of Mount Rushmore dies at 98", "Designing for South Dakota and the Upper Midwest: The Career of Architect Harold T. Spitznagel, 1930—1974", "Mission 66 Visitor Centers: The History of a Building Type", "For Mount Rushmore, An Overdue Face Wash", "Text of 1934 Essay – History of the United States", "George Bush: Remarks at the Dedication Ceremony of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota", "Popular South Dakota Attractions >>South Dakota", "Hall of Records - Mount Rushmore National Memorial (U.S. National Park Service)", "Mount Rushmore, South Dakota for Tourists", "Fireworks Likely Caused Water Contamination at Mount Rushmore", "Mt. Washington Monument | Mount Rushmore has become an iconic symbol of presidential greatness and has appeared in works of fiction, and has been discussed or depicted in other popular works. In the movie, the villain's house is located on a fictitious forested plateau behind the monument. Auch in vielen anderen Science-Fiction-Produktionen wird das Motiv verwendet, Mount Rushmore um einen weiteren Kopf zu ergänzen, meist handelt es sich dabei um einen für die Verhältnisse der Zeit der Produktion unvorstellbaren Präsidenten, zum Beispiel eine Frau, einen Schwarzen oder einen Außerirdischen.

[38], On October 15, 1966, Mount Rushmore was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Originally known to the Lakota Sioux as Six Grandfathers, the mountain was renamed after Charles E. Rushmore, a prominent New York lawyer, during an expedition in 1885. The Mount Rushmore National Monument aka Mount Rushmore is a cultural icon of the United States of America.. Background Edit. Mount Rushmore before construction, circa 1905. The site has been subsequently digitally recorded using a terrestrial laser scanning methodology in 2009 as part of the international Scottish Ten project, providing a record of unprecedented resolution and accuracy to inform the conservation of the site. [34], Nick Clifford, the last remaining carver, died in November 2019 at age 98.

[14] The mountain's height of 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level[3] made it suitable, and because it faces the southeast, the workers also had the advantage of sunlight for most of the day. Members of the American Indian Movement led an occupation of the monument in 1971, naming it "Mount Crazy Horse". Due to budget constraints, the memorial is not regularly cleaned to remove lichens. Charles Edward Rushmore (1857–1931), nach dem das Memorial benannte wurde, war ein mit Goldschürfrechten reich gewordener New Yorker Rechtsanwalt.[5].

'"[39] The scene was not actually filmed at the monument, since permission to shoot an attempted killing on the face of a national monument was refused by the National Park Service. Although the initial concept called for each president to be depicted from head to waist, lack of funding forced construction to end in late October 1941. [40], Tourism is South Dakota's second-largest industry, and Mount Rushmore is the state's top tourist attraction. It is inside a USDA Plant Hardiness Zone of 5a, meaning certain plant life in the area can withstand a low temperature of no less than −20 °F (−29 °C). However, Borglum realized that the eroded Needles were too thin to support sculpting. The rock of the mountain is composed of smooth, fine-grained granite. [9], As Six Grandfathers, the mountain was part of the route that Lakota leader Black Elk took in a spiritual journey that culminated at Harney Peak. Der Mount Rushmore ist ein 1745 m hoher Berg in den Black Hills, South Dakota nahe der Town Keystone. ", "Officials knew fireworks at Mount Rushmore could cause a fire. [7] The site attracts many visitors over the week of the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. In addition, stones like sandstone and limestone help to hold groundwater, creating aquifers. Following a series of military campaigns from 1876 to 1878, the United States asserted control over the area, a claim that is still disputed on the basis of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie (see section "Controversy" below). [27], The monument also provokes controversy because some allege that underlying it is the theme of racial superiority legitimized by the idea of Manifest Destiny. Lame Deer, John (Fire) and Richard Erdoes. Im Film Mars Attacks! [35] The Black Hills area was uplifted as an elongated geologic dome. In 1991 the United States Mint released a commemorative silver dollar celebrating the 50th anniversary of the monument's dedication. [74] On January 2, 1974, a stamp depicting the monument was also issued. [17], The entire project cost US$989,992.32. The tallest mountain in the region is Black Elk Peak (7,242 ft or 2,207 m).

Baker stated that he will open up more "avenues of interpretation", and that the four presidents are "only one avenue and only one focus. The mountain into which it was carved is known to the Lakota Sioux as Six Grandfathers.[8]. [31], At lower elevations, coniferous trees, mainly the Ponderosa pine, surround most of the monument, providing shade from the sun. [8] At first, the project of carving Rushmore was undertaken to increase tourism in the Black Hills region of South Dakota. [9][not in citation given] The memorial hosts nearly three million visitors a year.

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